Published by: Kowsar

Comparative Erythrocyte Glutathione S-Transferase Activity Profile of Non-Malarious Guinea Pigs (Cavia tschudii) Administered Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine and Artemether/Lumefantrine Combination Therapies

Paul Chidoka Chikezie 1 , *
Author Information
1 Department of Biochemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Article information
  • Thrita: December 01, 2014, 3 (4); e22246
  • Published Online: November 9, 2014
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: July 22, 2014
  • Revised: September 29, 2014
  • Accepted: October 22, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/thrita.22246

To Cite: Chikezie P C. Comparative Erythrocyte Glutathione S-Transferase Activity Profile of Non-Malarious Guinea Pigs (Cavia tschudii) Administered Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine and Artemether/Lumefantrine Combination Therapies, Thrita. 2014 ;3(4):e22246. doi: 10.5812/thrita.22246.

Copyright © 2014, Thrita. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Antimalarial drug combination therapy. Report of a Technical Consultation. 2001;
  • 2. Milhous WK, Weatherly NF, Bowdre JH, Desjardins RE. In vitro activities of and mechanisms of resistance to antifol antimalarial drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985; 27(4): 525-30[PubMed]
  • 3. Nzila A. Inhibitors of de novo folate enzymes in Plasmodium falciparum. Drug Discov Today. 2006; 11(19-20): 939-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Lefevre G, Bhad P, Jain JP, Kalluri S, Cheng Y, Dave H, et al. Evaluation of two novel tablet formulations of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem) for bioequivalence in a randomized, open-label, two-period study. Malar J. 2013; 12: 312[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Bakshi R, Hermeling-Fritz I, Gathmann I, Alteri E. An integrated assessment of the clinical safety of artemether-lumefantrine: a new oral fixed-dose combination antimalarial drug. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000; 94(4): 419-24[PubMed]
  • 6. Tracy JW, Webster LT. Drugs used in the chemotherapy of protozoan infections. In: Goodman and Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 2001;
  • 7. Crespo-Ortiz MP, Wei MQ. Antitumor activity of artemisinin and its derivatives: from a well-known antimalarial agent to a potential anticancer drug. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012; 2012: 247597[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. MacArthur JD. 2000;
  • 9. Sherratt PJ, Hayes JD. Enzyme Systems That Metabolise Drugs and Other Xenobiotics. 2001; : 319-52
  • 10. Ziglari T, Allameh A. The Significance of Glutathione Conjugation in Aflatoxin Metabolism. Aflatoxins-Recent. Advances and Future Prospects. 2013; [DOI]
  • 11. Gilliland FD, Li YF, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Effect of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and P1 genotypes on xenobiotic enhancement of allergic responses: randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study. Lancet. 2004; 363(9403): 119-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Primavera A, Fustinoni S, Biroccio A, Ballerini S, Urbani A, Bernardini S, et al. Glutathione transferases and glutathionylated hemoglobin in workers exposed to low doses of 1,3-butadiene. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008; 17(11): 3004-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Noce A, Ferrannini M, Fabrini R, Bocedi A, Dessi M, Galli F, et al. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a new biomarker for hemodialysis adequacy, overcoming the Kt/V(urea) dogma? Cell Death Dis. 2012; 3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Harvey JW, Beutler E. Binding of heme by glutathione S-transferase: a possible role of the erythrocyte enzyme. Blood. 1982; 60(5): 1227-30[PubMed]
  • 15. Awasthi YC, Singh SV. Purification and characterization of a new form of glutathione S-transferase from human erythrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984; 125(3): 1053-60[PubMed]
  • 16. Hamza I, Dailey HA. One ring to rule them all: trafficking of heme and heme synthesis intermediates in the metazoans. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012; 1823(9): 1617-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Takikawa H, Kaplowitz N. Comparison of the binding sites of GSH S-transferases of the Ya- and Yb-subunit classes: effect of glutathione on the binding of bile acids. J Lipid Res. 1988; 29(3): 279-86[PubMed]
  • 18. Ismert M, Oster T, Bagrel D. Effects of atmospheric exposure to naphthalene on xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes in the snail Helix aspersa. Chemosphere. 2002; 46(2): 273-80[PubMed]
  • 19. Ezeji EU, Anyalogbu EA, Ezejiofor TN, Udensi JU. Determination of reduced glutathione and glutathione S-transferase of poultry birds exposed to permethrin insecticide. Am J Biochem. 2012; 2(3): 21-4[DOI]
  • 20. Ibegbulem CO, Chikezie PC. Hypoglycemic properties of ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium, Aloe perryi, Viscum album and Allium sativum administered to alloxan induced diabetic albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). J Biol Chem Res. 2012; 29(1): 16-25[DOI]
  • 21. Tsakiris S, Giannoulia-Karantana A, Simintzi I, Schulpis KH. The effect of aspartame metabolites on human erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase activity. Pharmacol Res. 2006; 53(1): 1-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Chikezie PC. Comparative methaemoglobin concentrations of three erythrocyte genotypes (HbAA, HbAS and HbSS) of male participants administered with five antimalarial drugs. Afr J Biochem Res. 2009; 3(6): 266-71
  • 23. Chikezie PC. Glutathione S–transferase activity of human erythrocytes incubated in aqueous solution of five antimalarial drugs. Free Rad Antiox. 2011; 1(2): 25-9[DOI]
  • 24. Kalra VK, Sikka SC, Sethi GS. Transport of amino acids in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-implanted human erythrocytes. J Biol Chem. 1981; 256(11): 5567-71[PubMed]
  • 25. Galbraith DA, Watts DC. Changes in some cytoplasmic enzymes from red cells fractionated into age groups by centrifugation in Ficoll/Triosil gradients. Comparison of normal humans and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Biochem J. 1980; 191(1): 63-70[PubMed]
  • 26. Kamber E, Poyiagi A, Deliconstantinos G. Modifications in the activities of membrane-bound enzymes during in vivo ageing of human and rabbit erythrocytes. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1984; 77(1): 95-9[PubMed]
  • 27. Baure JD. Gradwohl's Clinical Laboratory Methods and Diagnosis. 1980; : 809-902
  • 28. Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB. Glutathione S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem. 1974; 249(22): 7130-9[PubMed]
  • 29. Pasupathi P, Chandrasekar V, Kumar US. Evaluation of oxidative stress, antioxidant and thyroid hormone status in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Med. 2009; 10: 60-6[DOI]
  • 30. Romeu M, Nogues R, Marcas L, Sanchez-Martos V, Mulero M, Martinez-Vea A, et al. Evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with chronic renal failure: a case control study. BMC Res Notes. 2010; 3: 20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Goodrich JM, Basu N. Variants of glutathione s-transferase pi 1 exhibit differential enzymatic activity and inhibition by heavy metals. Toxicol In Vitro. 2012; 26(4): 630-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Comakli V, Ciftci M, Kufrevioglu O. Purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme from rainbow trout erythrocytes and examination of the effects of certain antibiotics on enzyme activity. Hacettepe J Biol Chem. 2011; 39(4): 413–419
  • 33. Domingues I, Agra AR, Monaghan K, Soares AM, Nogueira AJ. Cholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in freshwater invertebrates as biomarkers to assess pesticide contamination. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010; 29(1): 5-18[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Jemec A, Drobne D, Tisler T, Sepcic K. Biochemical biomarkers in environmental studies--lessons learnt from enzymes catalase, glutathione S-transferase and cholinesterase in two crustacean species. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2010; 17(3): 571-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Valon M, Valbona A, Fahri G, Qenan M, Dhurat K, Fatmir C. Evaluating Environmental Pollution by Applying Oxidative Stress Biomarkers as Bioindicators of Water Pollution in Fish. Pol J Environ Stud. 2013; 22(5): 1519-23
  • 36. Ayalogu OE, Igboh NM, Dede EB. Biochemical Changes in the Serum and Liver of albino rats exposed to Petroleum Samples (gasoline, kerosene, and crude Petroleum). J Appl Sci Environ Manag. 2001; 5(1): 97-100
  • 37. Chiarpotto E, Biasi F, Scavazza A, Camandola S, Aragno M, Tamagno E, et al. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol-induced potentiation of rat hepatocyte damage due to the carcinogen 1,2-dibromoethane. Alcohol Alcohol. 1995; 30(6): 721-8[PubMed]
  • 38. Rathore N, John S, Kale M, Bhatnagar D. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in isoproterenol induced oxidative stress in rat tissues. Pharmacol Res. 1998; 38(4): 297-303[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Anosike EO, Uwakwe AA, Monanu MO, Ekeke GI. Studies on human erythrocyte glutathione-S-transferase from HbAA, HbAS and HbSS subjects. Biomed Biochim Acta. 1991; 50(9): 1051-6[PubMed]
  • 40. Lodovici M, Bigagli E. Oxidative stress and air pollution exposure. J Toxicol. 2011; 2011: 487074[DOI][PubMed]

Cited By:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:


  • Paul Chidoka Chikezie: [PubMed] []

Readers' Comments