Published by: Kowsar

Association of Dietary Factors With Male and Female Infertility: Review of Current Evidence

Banafshe Hosseini 1 and Ghazaleh Eslamian 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Students Research Committee, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Thrita: September 01, 2014, 3 (3); e20953
  • Published Online: August 25, 2014
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: June 5, 2014
  • Revised: July 12, 2014
  • Accepted: July 17, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/thrita.20953

To Cite: Hosseini B, Eslamian G. Association of Dietary Factors With Male and Female Infertility: Review of Current Evidence, Thrita. 2014 ;3(3):e20953. doi: 10.5812/thrita.20953.

Copyright © 2014, Thrita. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
  • 1. Definitions of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril. 2008; 90(5 Suppl)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Boivin J, Bunting L, Collins JA, Nygren KG. International estimates of infertility prevalence and treatment-seeking: potential need and demand for infertility medical care. Hum Reprod. 2007; 22(6): 1506-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Hull MG, Glazener CM, Kelly NJ, Conway DI, Foster PA, Hinton RA, et al. Population study of causes, treatment, and outcome of infertility. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985; 291(6510): 1693-7[PubMed]
  • 4. Heitman E. Infertility as a public health problem: why assisted reproductive technologies are not the answer. Stanford Law Pol Rev. 1995; 6(2): 89-102[PubMed]
  • 5. Stephen EH, Chandra A. Updated projections of infertility in the United States: 1995-2025. Fertil Steril. 1998; 70(1): 30-4[PubMed]
  • 6. Connor KL, Vickers MH, Beltrand J, Meaney MJ, Sloboda DM. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function. J Physiol. 2012; 590: 2167-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Batra N, Nehru B, Bansal MP. Reproductive potential of male Portan rats exposed to various levels of lead with regard to zinc status. Br J Nutr. 2004; 91(3): 387-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Urman B, Oktem O. Food and drug supplements to improve fertility outcomes. Semin Reprod Med. 2014; 32(4): 245-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Eslamian G, Amirjannati N, Rashidkhani B, Sadeghi MR, Hekmatdoost A. Intake of food groups and idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a case-control study. Hum Reprod. 2012; 27(11): 3328-36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. Dietary fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85(1): 231-7[PubMed]
  • 11. Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009; 63(1): 78-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 198(2): 210 e1-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner B, Willett WC. A prospective study of dairy foods intake and anovulatory infertility. Hum Reprod. 2007; 22(5): 1340-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Purvis K, Christiansen E. Male infertility: current concepts. Ann Med. 1992; 24(4): 259-72[PubMed]
  • 15. Jorgensen N, Joensen UN, Jensen TK, Jensen MB, Almstrup K, Olesen IA, et al. Human semen quality in the new millennium: a prospective cross-sectional population-based study of 4867 men. BMJ Open. 2012; 2(4)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Afeiche M, Williams PL, Mendiola J, Gaskins AJ, Jorgensen N, Swan SH, et al. Dairy food intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels among physically active young men. Hum Reprod. 2013; 28(8): 2265-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Wirleitner B, Vanderzwalmen P, Stecher A, Spitzer D, Schuff M, Schwerda D, et al. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants improves semen quality of IVF patients in terms of motility, sperm count, and nuclear vacuolization. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2012; 82(6): 391-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Klvanova J, Dusinska M. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Plasma Content in Groups of General Population with lowvitamin B6 or low iron serum levels. Ann Nutr Metab. 2004; 48(2): 118-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Nakamura MT, Nara TY. Structure, function, and dietary regulation of delta6, delta5, and delta9 desaturases. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004; 24: 345-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Xu HE, Lambert MH, Montana VG, Parks DJ, Blanchard SG, Brown PJ, et al. Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Mol Cell. 1999; 3(3): 397-403[PubMed]
  • 21. Dunaif A, Scott D, Finegood D, Quintana B, Whitcomb R. The insulin-sensitizing agent troglitazone improves metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996; 81(9): 3299-306[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Bishop-Bailey D, Wray J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: a critical review on endogenous pathways for ligand generation. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2003; 71(1-2): 1-22[PubMed]
  • 23. Iron deficiency--United States, 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 51(40): 897-9[PubMed]
  • 24. Lee DH, Folsom AR, Jacobs DR, Jr. Dietary iron intake and Type 2 diabetes incidence in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Diabetologia. 2004; 47(2): 185-94[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, et al. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1997; 337(21): 1491-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Brettenthaler N, De Geyter C, Huber PR, Keller U. Effect of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone on insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, and ovulatory dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89(8): 3835-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Douglas CC, Gower BA, Darnell BE, Ovalle F, Oster RA, Azziz R. Role of diet in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2006; 85(3): 679-88[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Oh K, Hu FB, Cho E, Rexrode KM, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber in relation to risk of stroke in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2005; 161(2): 161-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Colombo O, Pinelli G, Comelli M, Marchetti P, Sieri S, Brighenti F, et al. Dietary intakes in infertile women a pilot study. Nutr J. 2009; 8: 53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Moran LJ, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Tomlinson L, Galletly C, Norman RJ. Dietary composition in restoring reproductive and metabolic physiology in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88(2): 812-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Stamets K, Taylor DS, Kunselman A, Demers LM, Pelkman CL, Legro RS. A randomized trial of the effects of two types of short-term hypocaloric diets on weight loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2004; 81(3): 630-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Mejia-Guadarrama CA, Pasquier A, Dourmad JY, Prunier A, Quesnel H. Protein (lysine) restriction in primiparous lactating sows: effects on metabolic state, somatotropic axis, and reproductive performance after weaning. J Anim Sci. 2002; 80(12): 3286-300[PubMed]
  • 33. Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Neil BJ, Westphal SA. The insulin and glucose responses to meals of glucose plus various proteins in type II diabetic subjects. Metabolism. 1988; 37(11): 1081-8[PubMed]
  • 34. Hubbard R, Kosch CL, Sanchez A, Sabate J, Berk L, Shavlik G. Effect of dietary protein on serum insulin and glucagon levels in hyper- and normocholesterolemic men. Atherosclerosis. 1989; 76(1): 55-61[PubMed]
  • 35. Lavigne C, Marette A, Jacques H. Cod and soy proteins compared with casein improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 278(3)-500[PubMed]
  • 36. Thierry van Dessel HJ, Lee PD, Faessen G, Fauser BC, Giudice LC. Elevated serum levels of free insulin-like growth factor I in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84(9): 3030-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Duleba AJ, Spaczynski RZ, Olive DL. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I stimulate the proliferation of human ovarian theca-interstitial cells. Fertil Steril. 1998; 69(2): 335-40[PubMed]
  • 38. Holmes MD, Pollak MN, Willett WC, Hankinson SE. Dietary correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002; 11(9): 852-61[PubMed]
  • 39. Giovannucci E, Pollak M, Liu Y, Platz EA, Majeed N, Rimm EB, et al. Nutritional predictors of insulin-like growth factor I and their relationships to cancer in men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003; 12(2): 84-9[PubMed]
  • 40. Cramer DW, Xu H, Sahi T. Adult hypolactasia, milk consumption, and age-specific fertility. Am J Epidemiol. 1994; 139(3): 282-9[PubMed]
  • 41. Greenlee AR, Arbuckle TE, Chyou PH. Risk factors for female infertility in an agricultural region. Epidemiology. 2003; 14(4): 429-36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Bouthegourd JC, Roseau SM, Makarios-Lahham L, Leruyet PM, Tome DG, Even PC. A preexercise alpha-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein meal preserves lipid oxidation and decreases adiposity in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 283(3)-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Ruder EH, Hartman TJ, Blumberg J, Goldman MB. Oxidative stress and antioxidants: exposure and impact on female fertility. Hum Reprod Update. 2008; 14(4): 345-57[DOI][PubMed]
  • 44. Bolumar F, Olsen J, Rebagliato M, Saez-Lloret I, Bisanti L. Body mass index and delayed conception: a European Multicenter Study on Infertility and Subfecundity. Am J Epidemiol. 2000; 151(11): 1072-9[PubMed]
  • 45. Tatone C, Amicarelli F, Carbone MC, Monteleone P, Caserta D, Marci R, et al. Cellular and molecular aspects of ovarian follicle ageing. Hum Reprod Update. 2008; 14(2): 131-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Fenkci V, Fenkci S, Yilmazer M, Serteser M. Decreased total antioxidant status and increased oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease. Fertil Steril. 2003; 80(1): 123-7[PubMed]
  • 47. Polak G, Koziol-Montewka M, Gogacz M, Blaszkowska I, Kotarski J. Total antioxidant status of peritoneal fluid in infertile women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001; 94(2): 261-3[PubMed]
  • 48. Ruder EH, Hartman TJ, Reindollar RH, Goldman MB. Female dietary antioxidant intake and time to pregnancy among couples treated for unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril. 2014; 101(3): 759-66[DOI][PubMed]
  • 49. Aitken RJ, Clarkson JS, Hargreave TB, Irvine DS, Wu FC. Analysis of the relationship between defective sperm function and the generation of reactive oxygen species in cases of oligozoospermia. J Androl. 1989; 10(3): 214-20[PubMed]
  • 50. Eslamian G, Amirjannati N, Rashidkhani B, Sadeghi MR, Azita H. Effects of combined supplementation with vitamin E and docosahexaenoic acid on oxidative stress markers in seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic men. Polyhedron J. 2013; 18(5): 222-31
  • 51. Eskenazi B, Kidd SA, Marks AR, Sloter E, Block G, Wyrobek AJ. Antioxidant intake is associated with semen quality in healthy men. Hum Reprod. 2005; 20(4): 1006-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 52. Suleiman SA, Ali ME, Zaki ZM, el-Malik EM, Nasr MA. Lipid peroxidation and human sperm motility: protective role of vitamin E. J Androl. 1996; 17(5): 530-7[PubMed]
  • 53. Kessopoulou E, Powers HJ, Sharma KK, Pearson MJ, Russell JM, Cooke ID, et al. A double-blind randomized placebo cross-over controlled trial using the antioxidant vitamin E to treat reactive oxygen species associated male infertility. Fertil Steril. 1995; 64(4): 825-31[PubMed]
  • 54. Rolf C, Cooper TG, Yeung CH, Nieschlag E. Antioxidant treatment of patients with asthenozoospermia or moderate oligoasthenozoospermia with high-dose vitamin C and vitamin E: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Hum Reprod. 1999; 14(4): 1028-33[PubMed]
  • 55. Nadjarzadeh A, Mehrsai A, Mostafavi E, Gohari MR, Shidfar F. The association between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in infertile men. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2013; 27(4): 204-9[PubMed]
  • 56. Piomboni P, Gambera L, Serafini F, Campanella G, Morgante G, De Leo V. Sperm quality improvement after natural anti-oxidant treatment of asthenoteratospermic men with leukocytospermia. Asian J Androl. 2008; 10(2): 201-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 57. Menditto A, Pietraforte D, Minetti M. Ascorbic acid in human seminal plasma is protected from iron-mediated oxidation, but is potentially exposed to copper-induced damage. Hum Reprod. 1997; 12(8): 1699-705[PubMed]
  • 58. Dawson EB, Harris WA, Rankin WE, Charpentier LA, McGanity WJ. Effect of ascorbic acid on male fertility. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987; 498: 312-23[PubMed]
  • 59. Verma A, Kanwar KC. Human sperm motility and lipid peroxidation in different ascorbic acid concentrations: an in vitro analysis. Andrologia. 1998; 30(6): 325-9[PubMed]
  • 60. Lenzi A, Culasso F, Gandini L, Lombardo F, Dondero F. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of glutathione therapy in male infertility. Hum Reprod. 1993; 8(10): 1657-62[PubMed]
  • 61. Hansen JC, Deguchi Y. Selenium and fertility in animals and man--a review. Acta Vet Scand. 1996; 37(1): 19-30[PubMed]
  • 62. Keskes-Ammar L, Feki-Chakroun N, Rebai T, Sahnoun Z, Ghozzi H, Hammami S, et al. Sperm oxidative stress and the effect of an oral vitamin E and selenium supplement on semen quality in infertile men. Arch Androl. 2003; 49(2): 83-94[PubMed]
  • 63. Moslemi MK, Tavanbakhsh S. Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in infertile men: effects on semen parameters and pregnancy rate. Int J Gen Med. 2011; 4: 99-104[DOI][PubMed]
  • 64. Vezina D, Mauffette F, Roberts KD, Bleau G. Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in infertile men. Effects on semen parameters and micronutrient levels and distribution. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996; 53(1-3): 65-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 65. Cheah Y, Yang W. Functions of essential nutrition for high quality spermatogenesis. BioScience. 2011; 2(4)
  • 66. Tikkiwal M, Ajmera RL, Mathur NK. Effect of zinc administration on seminal zinc and fertility of oligospermic males. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1987; 31(1): 30-4[PubMed]
  • 67. de Lamirande E, Jiang H, Zini A, Kodama H, Gagnon C. Reactive oxygen species and sperm physiology. Rev Reprod. 1997; 2(1): 48-54[PubMed]
  • 68. Omu AE, Dashti H, Al-Othman S. Treatment of asthenozoospermia with zinc sulphate: andrological, immunological and obstetric outcome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1998; 79(2): 179-84[PubMed]
  • 69. Lewin A, Lavon H. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on sperm motility and function. Mol Aspects Med. 1997; 18 Suppl-9[PubMed]
  • 70. Sandler B, Faragher B. Treatment of oligospermia with vitamin B-12. Infertility J. 1984; 7(1-4): 133-8
  • 71. Balercia G, Buldreghini E, Vignini A, Tiano L, Paggi F, Amoroso S, et al. Coenzyme Q10 treatment in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized trial. Fertil Steril. 2009; 91(5): 1785-92[DOI][PubMed]
  • 72. Safarinejad MR. The effect of coenzyme Q(1)(0) supplementation on partner pregnancy rate in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: an open-label prospective study. Int Urol Nephrol. 2012; 44(3): 689-700[DOI][PubMed]
  • 73. Nadjarzadeh A, Shidfar F, Amirjannati N, Vafa MR, Motevalian SA, Gohari MR, et al. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress of seminal plasma: a double-blind randomised clinical trial. Andrologia. 2014; 46(2): 177-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 74. Nadjarzadeh A, Sadeghi MR, Amirjannati N, Vafa MR, Motevalian SA, Gohari MR, et al. Coenzyme Q10 improves seminal oxidative defense but does not affect on semen parameters in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011; 34(8)-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 75. Lafuente R, Gonzalez-Comadran M, Sola I, Lopez G, Brassesco M, Carreras R, et al. Coenzyme Q10 and male infertility: a meta-analysis. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2013; 30(9): 1147-56[DOI][PubMed]
  • 76. Isoyama R, Baba Y, Harada H, Kawai S, Shimizu Y, Fujii M, et al. [Clinical experience of methylcobalamin (CH3-B12)/clomiphene citrate combined treatment in male infertility]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 1986; 32(8): 1177-83[PubMed]
  • 77. Begum H, Moniruddin ABM, Nahar K. Environmental and Nutritional Aspect in Male Infertility. Medic J. 2009; 10(1)[DOI]
  • 78. Zareba P, Colaci DS, Afeiche M, Gaskins AJ, Jorgensen N, Mendiola J, et al. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population. Fertil Steril. 2013; 100(6): 1572-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 79. Minguez-Alarcon L, Mendiola J, Lopez-Espin JJ, Sarabia-Cos L, Vivero-Salmeron G, Vioque J, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients is associated with semen quality in young university students. Hum Reprod. 2012; 27(9): 2807-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 80. Vicari E, La Vignera S, Calogero AE. Antioxidant treatment with carnitines is effective in infertile patients with prostatovesiculoepididymitis and elevated seminal leukocyte concentrations after treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Fertil Steril. 2002; 78(6): 1203-8[PubMed]
  • 81. Horn-Ross PL, Lee M, John EM, Koo J. Sources of phytoestrogen exposure among non-Asian women in California, USA. Cancer Causes Control. 2000; 11(4): 299-302[PubMed]
  • 82. Atanassova N, McKinnell C, Turner KJ, Walker M, Fisher JS, Morley M, et al. Comparative effects of neonatal exposure of male rats to potent and weak (environmental) estrogens on spermatogenesis at puberty and the relationship to adult testis size and fertility: evidence for stimulatory effects of low estrogen levels. Endocrinology. 2000; 141(10): 3898-907[DOI][PubMed]
  • 83. Chavarro JE, Toth TL, Sadio SM, Hauser R. Soy food and isoflavone intake in relation to semen quality parameters among men from an infertility clinic. Hum Reprod. 2008; 23(11): 2584-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 84. Mitchell JH, Cawood E, Kinniburgh D, Provan A, Collins AR, Irvine DS. Effect of a phytoestrogen food supplement on reproductive health in normal males. Clin Sci (Lond). 2001; 100(6): 613-8[PubMed]
  • 85. Song G, Kochman L, Andolina E, Herko RC, Brewer KJ, Lewis V. O-115. Fertilit Sterilit J. 2006; 86(3)[DOI]
  • 86. Rozati R, Reddy PP, Reddanna P, Mujtaba R. Role of environmental estrogens in the deterioration of male factor fertility. Fertil Steril. 2002; 78(6): 1187-94[PubMed]
  • 87. Xia Y, Chen M, Zhu P, Lu C, Fu G, Zhou X, et al. Urinary phytoestrogen levels related to idiopathic male infertility in Chinese men. Environ Int. 2013; 59: 161-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 88. Afeiche MC, Gaskins AJ, Williams PL, Toth TL, Wright DL, Tanrikut C, et al. Processed Meat Intake Is Unfavorably and Fish Intake Favorably Associated with Semen Quality Indicators among Men Attending a Fertility Clinic. J Nutr. 2014; 144(7): 1091-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 89. Conquer JA, Martin JB, Tummon I, Watson L, Tekpetey F. Effect of DHA supplementation on DHA status and sperm motility in asthenozoospermic males. Lipids. 2000; 35(2): 149-54[PubMed]
  • 90. Safarinejad MR. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on semen profile and enzymatic anti-oxidant capacity of seminal plasma in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study. Andrologia. 2011; 43(1): 38-47[DOI][PubMed]
  • 91. Kelso KA, Cerolini S, Speake BK, Cavalchini LG, Noble RC. Effects of dietary supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid on the phospholipid fatty acid composition and quality of spermatozoa in cockerel from 24 to 72 weeks of age. J Reprod Fertil. 1997; 110(1): 53-9[PubMed]
  • 92. Robbins WA, Xun L, FitzGerald LZ, Esguerra S, Henning SM, Carpenter CL. Walnuts improve semen quality in men consuming a Western-style diet: randomized control dietary intervention trial. Biol Reprod. 2012; 87(4): 101[DOI][PubMed]
  • 93. Nissen HP, Kreysel HW. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to sperm motility. Andrologia. 1983; 15(3): 264-9[PubMed]
  • 94. Jensen TK, Heitmann BL, Jensen MB, Halldorsson TI, Andersson AM, Skakkebaek NE, et al. High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97(2): 411-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 95. Eslamian G, Sadeghi MR, Rashidkhani B, Pahlavan S, Amirjannati N, Hekmatdoost A. The effects of combined docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin E supplements on spermatogram in asthenozoospermic males: A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Razi J Med Sci. 2012; 19(96): 34-44
  • 96. Homma-Takeda S, Kugenuma Y, Iwamuro T, Kumagai Y, Shimojo N. Impairment of spermatogenesis in rats by methylmercury: involvement of stage- and cell- specific germ cell apoptosis. Toxicology. 2001; 169(1): 25-35[PubMed]
  • 97. Orisakwe OE, Afonne OJ, Nwobodo E, Asomugha L, Dioka CE. Low-dose mercury induces testicular damage protected by zinc in mice. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001; 95(1): 92-6[PubMed]
  • 98. Ernst E, Lauritsen JG. Effect of organic and inorganic mercury on human sperm motility. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1991; 68(6): 440-4[PubMed]
  • 99. Leung TY, Choy CM, Yim SF, Lam CW, Haines CJ. Whole blood mercury concentrations in sub-fertile men in Hong Kong. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001; 41(1): 75-7[PubMed]
  • 100. Choy CM, Lam CW, Cheung LT, Briton-Jones CM, Cheung LP, Haines CJ. Infertility, blood mercury concentrations and dietary seafood consumption: a case-control study. BJOG. 2002; 109(10): 1121-5[PubMed]
  • 101. Mendiola J, Torres-Cantero AM, Moreno-Grau JM, Ten J, Roca M, Moreno-Grau S, et al. Food intake and its relationship with semen quality: a case-control study. Fertil Steril. 2009; 91(3): 812-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 102. Chiu YH, Afeiche MC, Gaskins AJ, Williams PL, Mendiola J, Jorgensen N, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men. Hum Reprod. 2014; [DOI][PubMed]
  • 103. Afeiche MC, Bridges ND, Williams PL, Gaskins AJ, Tanrikut C, Petrozza JC, et al. Dairy intake and semen quality among men attending a fertility clinic. Fertil Steril. 2014; 101(5): 1280-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 104. Gaskins AJ, Colaci DS, Mendiola J, Swan SH, Chavarro JE. Dietary patterns and semen quality in young men. Hum Reprod. 2012; 27(10): 2899-907[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments