Thrita

Published by: Kowsar

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Evaluation of Disease Severity

Raika Jamali 1 , 2 , *
Author Information
1 Research Development Center, Sina Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Students Scientific Research Center, Research Development Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Thrita: December 20, 2013, 2 (4); 43-51
  • Published Online: November 10, 2013
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: April 25, 2013
  • Revised: May 24, 2013
  • Accepted: May 24, 2013
  • DOI: 10.5812/thrita.11795

To Cite: Jamali R. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Evaluation of Disease Severity, Thrita. 2013 ;2(4):43-51. doi: 10.5812/thrita.11795.

Abstract
Copyright © 2013, Thrita. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Caldwell SH. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: summary of an AASLD Single Topic Conference. Hepatology. 2003; 37(5): 1202-19[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Qian Y, Fan JG. Obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2005; 4(2): 173-7[PubMed]
  • 3. Jamali R, Khonsari M, Merat S, Khoshnia M, Jafari E, Bahram Kalhori A, et al. Persistent alanine aminotransferase elevation among the general Iranian population: prevalence and causes. World J Gastroenterol. 2008; 14(18): 2867-71[PubMed]
  • 4. Merat S, Rezvan H, Nouraie M, Abolghasemi H, Jamali R, Amini-Kafiabad S, et al. Seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis A virus infection in Iran: a population based study. Arch Iran Med. 2010; 13(2): 99-104[PubMed]
  • 5. Merat S, Rezvan H, Nouraie M, Jamali A, Assari S, Abolghasemi H, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis B core antibody in Iran: a population-based study. Arch Iran Med. 2009; 12(3): 225-31[PubMed]
  • 6. Saberi HR, Moravveji AR, Fakharian E, Kashani MM, Dehdashti AR. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in bus and truck drivers in Kashan, Iran. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2011; 3(1): 8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Jamali R. Inappropriate Long-Term Steroid Therapy in Autoimmune Hepatitis Might Cause the Development of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; A Challenging Situation. J Med Sci. 2012; 1: 111-2
  • 8. Bahrami H, Daryani NE, Mirmomen S, Kamangar F, Haghpanah B, Djalili M. Clinical and histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in Iranian patients. BMC Gastroenterol. 2003; 3: 27[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Samimi R, Nasiri-Toosi M, Ebrahimi-Daryani N, Foroutan H, Habibollahi P, Keramati M, et al. Insulin Resistance and Related Factors in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): An Analytic Cross-Sectional Study. Govaresh. 2011; 13(4): 268-275
  • 10. Alavian SM. Diabetes mellitus and fatty liver disease: Which comes first? Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 8(3): 130-131
  • 11. Merat S, Yarahmadi S, Tahaghoghi S, Alizadeh Z, Sedighi N, Mansournia N, et al. Prevalence of fatty liver disease among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and its relation to insulin resistance. Middle East J Dig Dis. 2011; 1(2): 74-79
  • 12. EbrahimiDaryani N, Bahrami H, Haghpanah B, Hashtroudi A. Non-Alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Govaresh. 2012; 9(2): 110-121
  • 13. Azizi F, Hadaegh F, Khalili D, Esteghamati A, Hosseinpanah F, Delavari A, et al. Appropriate definition of metabolic syndrome among Iranian adults: report of the Iranian National Committee of Obesity. Arch Iran Med. 2010; 13(5): 426-8[PubMed]
  • 14. Zabetian A, Hadaegh F, Sarbakhsh P, Azizi F. Weight change and incident metabolic syndrome in Iranian men and women; a 3 year follow-up study. BMC Public Health. 2009; 9: 138[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Ramezani H, Bozorgi SH, Nooranipour M, Mostajeri A, Kargar-Fard H, Molaverdikhani S, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis A among blood donors in Qazvin, central Iran. Singapore Med J. 2011; 52(2): 107-12[PubMed]
  • 16. Hosseini-Moghaddam SM, Zarei A, Alavian SM, Mansouri M. Hepatitis E virus infection: a general review with a focus on hemodialysis and kidney transplant patients. Am J Nephrol. 2010; 31(5): 398-407[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Ghamar Chehreh ME, Tabatabaei SV, Khazanehdari S, Alavian SM. Effect of cesarean section on the risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus from HCV-RNA+/HIV- mothers: a meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011; 283(2): 255-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Alavian SM, Einollahi B, Hajarizadeh B, Bakhtiari S, Nafar M, Ahrabi S. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and related risk factors among Iranian haemodialysis patients. Nephrology (Carlton). 2003; 8(5): 256-60[PubMed]
  • 19. Alavian SM, Kabir A, Ahmadi AB, Lankarani KB, Shahbabaie MA, Ahmadzad-Asl M. Hepatitis C infection in hemodialysis patients in Iran: a systematic review. Hemodial Int. 2010; 14(3): 253-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Alavian SM. Hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients needs more attention for control and review the risk factors. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2010; 21(2): 357-8[PubMed]
  • 21. Alavian SM, Fallahian F, Lankarani KB. The changing epidemiology of viral hepatitis B in Iran. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2007; 16(4): 403-6[PubMed]
  • 22. Alavian SM, Gholami B, Masarrat S. Hepatitis C risk factors in Iranian volunteer blood donors: a case-control study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002; 17(10): 1092-7[PubMed]
  • 23. Mohammad Alizadeh AH, Alavian SM, Jafari K, Yazdi N. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and its related risk factors in drug abuser prisoners in Hamedan--Iran. World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11(26): 4085-9[PubMed]
  • 24. Alavian SM, Hajarizadeh B. Remarkable difference in the mode of HCV transmission among haemodialysis patients and IVDAs. Gut. 2004; 53(7): 1057[PubMed]
  • 25. Rosencrantz R, Schilsky M. Wilson disease: pathogenesis and clinical considerations in diagnosis and treatment. Semin Liver Dis. 2011; 31(3): 245-59[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Sebastiani G, Pantopoulos K. Disorders associated with systemic or local iron overload: from pathophysiology to clinical practice. Metallomics. 2011; 3(10): 971-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Joshi M, Khettry U. Approach to diagnosis of auto-immune hepatitis. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2009; 52(3): 297-303[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Hawker F. Liver dysfunction in critical illness. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1991; 19(2): 165-81[PubMed]
  • 29. Morla D, Alazemi S, Lichtstein D. Stauffer's syndrome variant with cholestatic jaundice: a case report. J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21(7)-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Stirnimann G, Kessebohm K, Lauterburg B. Liver injury caused by drugs: an update. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010; 140[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Grieco A, Forgione A, Miele L, Vero V, Greco AV, Gasbarrini A, et al. Fatty liver and drugs. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2005; 9(5): 261-3[PubMed]
  • 32. Falck-Ytter Y, Younossi ZM, Marchesini G, McCullough AJ. Clinical features and natural history of nonalcoholic steatosis syndromes. Semin Liver Dis. 2001; 21(1): 17-26[PubMed]
  • 33. Kim YS, Ahn YO, Kim DW. Familial clustering of hepatitis B and C viruses in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 1994; 9(6): 444-9[PubMed]
  • 34. Strauss E, Lacet CM, Caly WR, Fukushima JT, Gayotto LC. Cryptogenic cirrhosis: clinico-biochemical comparison with alcoholic and viral etiologies. Arq Gastroenterol. 1990; 27(2): 46-52[PubMed]
  • 35. Bulfoni A. [Vascular spiders, palmar erythema and Dupuytren's contracture in alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis. Clinical-statistical contribution]. Arch Sci Med (Torino). 1980; 137(2): 355-60[PubMed]
  • 36. Kim KA, Jeong SH. The diagnosis and treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. Korean J Hepatol. 2011; 17(3): 173-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Alavian SM, Mohammad-Alizadeh AH, Esna-Ashari F, Ardalan G, Hajarizadeh B. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence among school-aged children and adolescents in Iran and its association with biochemical and anthropometric measures. Liver Int. 2009; 29(2): 159-63[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Janghorbani M, Amini M, Rezvanian H, Gouya MM, Delavari A, Alikhani S, et al. Association of body mass index and abdominal obesity with marital status in adults. Arch Iran Med. 2008; 11(3): 274-81[PubMed]
  • 39. Delavari A, Forouzanfar MH, Alikhani S, Sharifian A, Kelishadi R. First nationwide study of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and optimal cutoff points of waist circumference in the Middle East: the national survey of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases of Iran. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32(6): 1092-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Czernichow S, Kengne AP, Huxley RR, Batty GD, de Galan B, Grobbee D, et al. Comparison of waist-to-hip ratio and other obesity indices as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in people with type-2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study from ADVANCE. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2011; 18(2): 312-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Khosravi S, Alavian SM, Zare A, Daryani NE, Fereshtehnejad SM, Keramati MR, et al. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and correlation of serum alanin aminotransferase level with histopathologic findings. Hepat Mon. 2011; 11(6): 452-8[PubMed]
  • 42. Mofrad P, Contos MJ, Haque M, Sargeant C, Fisher RA, Luketic VA, et al. Clinical and histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with normal ALT values. Hepatology. 2003; 37(6): 1286-92[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Jamali R, Pourshams A, Amini S, Deyhim MR, Rezvan H, Malekzadeh R. The upper normal limit of serum alanine aminotransferase in Golestan Province, northeast Iran. Arch Iran Med. 2008; 11(6): 602-7[PubMed]
  • 44. Poustchi H, George J, Esmaili S, Esna-Ashari F, Ardalan G, Sepanlou SG, et al. Gender differences in healthy ranges for serum alanine aminotransferase levels in adolescence. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Ye J, Chen Z, Wang T, Tong J, Li X, Jiang J, et al. Role of tissue disorder markers in the evaluation of disease progress and outcome prediction: a prospective cohort study in non-cardiac critically ill patients. J Clin Lab Anal. 2010; 24(6): 376-84[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Sorbi D, Boynton J, Lindor KD. The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase: potential value in differentiating nonalcoholic steatohepatitis from alcoholic liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94(4): 1018-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. Razavizade M, Jamali R, Arj A, Talari H. Serum parameters predict the severity of ultrasonographic findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2012; 11(5): 513-20[PubMed]
  • 48. Oh SY, Cho YK, Kang MS, Yoo TW, Park JH, Kim HJ, et al. The association between increased alanine aminotransferase activity and metabolic factors in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism. 2006; 55(12): 1604-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 49. Kashyap SR, Diab DL, Baker AR, Yerian L, Bajaj H, Gray-McGuire C, et al. Triglyceride levels and not adipokine concentrations are closely related to severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an obesity surgery cohort. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009; 17(9): 1696-701[DOI][PubMed]
  • 50. Leite NC, Salles GF, Araujo AL, Villela-Nogueira CA, Cardoso CR. Prevalence and associated factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Liver Int. 2009; 29(1): 113-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 51. Anderson KM, Odell PM, Wilson PW, Kannel WB. Cardiovascular disease risk profiles. Am Heart J. 1991; 121(1 Pt 2): 293-8[PubMed]
  • 52. Kim CW, Chang Y, Sung E, Shin H, Ryu S. Serum ferritin levels predict incident non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in healthy Korean men. Metabolism. 2012; 61(8): 1182-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 53. Adams LA, Lindor KD, Angulo P. The prevalence of autoantibodies and autoimmune hepatitis in patients with nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004; 99(7): 1316-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 54. Pacifico L, Celestre M, Anania C, Paolantonio P, Chiesa C, Laghi A. MRI and ultrasound for hepatic fat quantification:relationships to clinical and metabolic characteristics of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Acta Paediatr. 2007; 96(4): 542-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 55. Charatcharoenwitthaya P, Lindor KD. Role of radiologic modalities in the management of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Liver Dis. 2007; 11(1): 37-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 56. Schwenzer NF, Springer F, Schraml C, Stefan N, Machann J, Schick F. Non-invasive assessment and quantification of liver steatosis by ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. J Hepatol. 2009; 51(3): 433-45[DOI][PubMed]
  • 57. Mottin CC, Moretto M, Padoin AV, Swarowsky AM, Toneto MG, Glock L, et al. The role of ultrasound in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg. 2004; 14(5): 635-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 58. Joy D, Thava VR, Scott BB. Diagnosis of fatty liver disease: is biopsy necessary? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003; 15(5): 539-43[DOI][PubMed]
  • 59. Wang SS, Chiang JH, Tsai YT, Lee SD, Lin HC, Chou YH, et al. Focal hepatic fatty infiltration as a cause of pseudotumors: ultrasonographic patterns and clinical differentiation. J Clin Ultrasound. 1990; 18(5): 401-9[PubMed]
  • 60. Fu CC, Chen MC, Li YM, Liu TT, Wang LY. The risk factors for ultrasound-diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among adolescents. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2009; 38(1): 15-7[PubMed]
  • 61. Mohammadinia AR, Bakhtavar K, Ebrahimi-Daryani N, Habibollahi P, Keramati MR, Fereshtehnejad SM, et al. Correlation of hepatic vein Doppler waveform and hepatic artery resistance index with the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Ultrasound. 2010; 38(7): 346-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 62. Cho CS, Curran S, Schwartz LH, Kooby DA, Klimstra DS, Shia J, et al. Preoperative radiographic assessment of hepatic steatosis with histologic correlation. J Am Coll Surg. 2008; 206(3): 480-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 63. Kotronen A, Peltonen M, Hakkarainen A, Sevastianova K, Bergholm R, Johansson LM, et al. Prediction of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver fat using metabolic and genetic factors. Gastroenterology. 2009; 137(3): 865-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 64. Dunn W, Angulo P, Sanderson S, Jamil LH, Stadheim L, Rosen C, et al. Utility of a new model to diagnose an alcohol basis for steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2006; 131(4): 1057-63[DOI][PubMed]
  • 65. Yoneda M, Mawatari H, Fujita K, Iida H, Yonemitsu K, Kato S, et al. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is an independent clinical feature of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and also of the severity of fibrosis in NASH. J Gastroenterol. 2007; 42(7): 573-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 66. Wieckowska A, Papouchado BG, Li Z, Lopez R, Zein NN, Feldstein AE. Increased hepatic and circulating interleukin-6 levels in human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103(6): 1372-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 67. Yoneda M, Uchiyama T, Kato S, Endo H, Fujita K, Yoneda K, et al. Plasma Pentraxin3 is a novel marker for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). BMC Gastroenterol. 2008; 8: 53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 68. Tarantino G, Conca P, Coppola A, Vecchione R, Di Minno G. Serum concentrations of the tissue polypeptide specific antigen in patients suffering from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Eur J Clin Invest. 2007; 37(1): 48-53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 69. Oh MK, Winn J, Poordad F. Review article: diagnosis and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008; 28(5): 503-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 70. Degertekin B, Ozenirler S, Elbeg S, Akyol G. The serum endothelin-1 level in steatosis and NASH, and its relation with severity of liver fibrosis. Dig Dis Sci. 2007; 52(10): 2622-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 71. Wieckowska A, McCullough AJ, Feldstein AE. Noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: present and future. Hepatology. 2007; 46(2): 582-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 72. Machado MV, Coutinho J, Carepa F, Costa A, Proenca H, Cortez-Pinto H. How adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin orchestrate together and correlate with the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 24(10): 1166-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 73. Petta S, Amato M, Cabibi D, Camma C, Di Marco V, Giordano C, et al. Visceral adiposity index is associated with histological findings and high viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis C due to genotype 1. Hepatology. 2010; 52(5): 1543-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 74. Dixon JB, Bhathal PS, O'Brien PE. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: predictors of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis in the severely obese. Gastroenterology. 2001; 121(1): 91-100[PubMed]
  • 75. Palekar NA, Naus R, Larson SP, Ward J, Harrison SA. Clinical model for distinguishing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis from simple steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver Int. 2006; 26(2): 151-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 76. Ratziu V, Massard J, Charlotte F, Messous D, Imbert-Bismut F, Bonyhay L, et al. Diagnostic value of biochemical markers (FibroTest-FibroSURE) for the prediction of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BMC Gastroenterol. 2006; 6: 6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 77. Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G, Bugianesi E, George J, Farrell GC, et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology. 2007; 45(4): 846-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 78. Poynard T, Ratziu V, Charlotte F, Messous D, Munteanu M, Imbert-Bismut F, et al. Diagnostic value of biochemical markers (NashTest) for the prediction of non alcoholo steato hepatitis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BMC Gastroenterol. 2006; 6: 34[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments