Published by: Kowsar

Comparison of Arch Index of flat foot and healthy foot in pre-school children

Ensieh Pourhoseingholi 1 and Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Orthosis and prosthesis Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Department of Biostatistics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Thrita: September 6, 2013, 2 (3); 15-18
  • Published Online: August 26, 2013
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 13, 2012
  • Revised: December 19, 2012
  • Accepted: March 10, 2013
  • DOI: 10.5812/thrita.9115

To Cite: Pourhoseingholi E, Pourhoseingholi M A. Comparison of Arch Index of flat foot and healthy foot in pre-school children, Thrita. 2013 ;2(3):15-18. doi: 10.5812/thrita.9115.

Copyright © 2013, Thrita. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Shih YF, Chen CY, Chen WY, Lin HC. Lower extremity kinematics in children with and without flexible flatfoot: a comparative study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012; 13: 31[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Vittore D, Patella V, Petrera M, Caizzi G, Ranieri M, Putignano P, et al. Extensor deficiency: first cause of childhood flexible flat foot. Orthopedics. 2009; 32(1): 28[PubMed]
  • 3. Menz HB. Foot Problems in Older People: Assessment and Management. 2008;
  • 4. Bonnet WL, Baker DR. Diagnosis of pes planus by x-ray. Radiology. 1946; 46: 36-45[PubMed]
  • 5. Riccio I, Gimigliano F, Gimigliano R, Porpora G, Iolascon G. Rehabilitative treatment in flexible flatfoot: a perspective cohort study. Chir Organi Mov. 2009; 93(3): 101-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. El O, Akcali O, Kosay C, Kaner B, Arslan Y, Sagol E, et al. Flexible flatfoot and related factors in primary school children: a report of a screening study. Rheumatol Int. 2006; 26(11): 1050-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Pfeiffer M, Kotz R, Ledl T, Hauser G, Sluga M. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children. Pediatrics. 2006; 118(2): 634-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Volpon JB. Footprint analysis during the growth period. J Pediatr Orthop. 1994; 14(1): 83-5[PubMed]
  • 9. Staheli LT. Planovalgus foot deformity. Current status. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1999; 89(2): 94-9[PubMed]
  • 10. Whitford D, Esterman A. A randomized controlled trial of two types of in-shoe orthoses in children with flexible excess pronation of the feet. Foot Ankle Int. 2007; 28(6): 715-23[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Menz HB, Fotoohabadi MR, Wee E, Spink MJ. Visual categorisation of the arch index: a simplified measure of foot posture in older people. J Foot Ankle Res. 2012; 5(1): 10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Cobb SC, Tis LL, Johnson BF, Higbie EJ. The effect of forefoot varus on postural stability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2004; 34(2): 79-85[PubMed]
  • 13. Spink MJ, Fotoohabadi MR, Wee E, Hill KD, Lord SR, Menz HB. Foot and ankle strength, range of motion, posture, and deformity are associated with balance and functional ability in older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011; 92(1): 68-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Menz HB, Morris ME. Clinical determinants of plantar forces and pressures during walking in older people. Gait Posture. 2006; 24(2): 229-36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Nigg BM, Cole GK, Nachbauer W. Effects of arch height of the foot on angular motion of the lower extremities in running. J biomechanics. 1993; 26(8): 909-916
  • 16. Menz HB, Munteanu SE, Zammit GV, Landorf KB. Foot structure and function in older people with radiographic osteoarthritis of the medial midfoot. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010; 18(3): 317-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Yalcin N, Esen E, Kanatli U, Yetkin H. Evaluation of the medial longitudinal arch: a comparison between the dynamic plantar pressure measurement system and radiographic analysis. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2010; 44(3): 241-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Elvira JL, Vera-Garcia FJ, Meana M. Subtalar joint kinematic correlations with footprint arch index in race walkers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008; 48(2): 225-34[PubMed]
  • 19. Spink MJ, Menz HB, Fotoohabadi MR, Wee E, Landorf KB, Hill KD, et al. Effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2011; 342[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Murley GS, Menz HB, Landorf KB. A protocol for classifying normal- and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements. J Foot Ankle Res. 2009; 2: 22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Kanatli U, Yetkin H, Cila E. Footprint and radiographic analysis of the feet. J Pediatr Orthop. 2001; 21(2): 225-8[PubMed]
  • 22. Mosca VS. Flexible flatfoot in children and adolescents. J Child Orthop. 2010; 4(2): 107-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Hylton B, Menz B, Shannon E, Redmond A, Burns J, Crosbie J, et al. An initial-Validity of 3 Clinical Techniques for the Measurement of Static Foot Posture in Older People. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2001; 31: 160
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments